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Young's Modulus of Soil

Youngs Modulus

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Young's Modulus of Soil

The modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus of a soil is an elastic soil parameter most commonly used in the estimation of settlement from static loads.

Young's soil modulus, Es, may be estimated from empirical correlations, laboratory test results on undisturbed specimens and results of field tests. Laboratory tests that may be used to estimate the soil modulus are the triaxial unconsolidated undrained compression or the triaxial consolidated undrained compression tests. Field tests include the plate load test, cone penetration test, standard penetration test (SPT) and the pressuremeter test. Empirical correlations summarized from USACE EM 1110-1-1904 is presented below:




Es = KcCu
     where: Es = Young's soil modulus (tsf)
        Kc = correlation factor
        Cu = undrained shear strength, tsf


Typical Elastic Moduli of soils based on soil type and consistency/ density, (from USACE, Settlement Analysis).


Es (tsf)

very soft clay

5 - 50

soft clay

50 - 200

medium clay

200 - 500

stiff clay, silty clay

500 - 1000

sandy clay

250 - 2000

clay shale

1000 - 2000

loose sand

100 - 250

dense sand

250 - 1000

dense sand and gravel

1000 - 2000

silty sand

250 - 2000


Other soil and soil related properties are listed below:

Angle of Internal Friction
Bearing Capacity Factors
External Friction Angle
Factor of Safety
Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficients
Modulus of Vertical Subgrade Reaction
Soil Unit Weights


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